Wednesday, July 8, 2020

Competitiveness of Banks Research Proposal - 5225 Words

Competitiveness of Banks (Research Proposal Sample) Content: Competitiveness among the banks in the United Kingdom, prior to and after the global financial crisisName of studentRegistration numberDate DECLARATIONI declare that this is my original work and has not been submitted for examination to any other institution of higher learning.Declaration by the Supervisor:This proposal has been presented for examination with my approval as the supervisor DATE SIGNATURE .. . .... DEDICATIONI dedicate this project proposal to my dear parents and my brothers and dear friends whose words and patience have been our source of encouragement and inspiration.AcknowledgementI would like to convey my thanks to everyone who gave me advice on how to go about this proposal. Special thanks goes to my supervisor for his useful advice, as well as suggestions. In addition, I would like to take this opportunity to convey my sincere appreciation and gratitude to the Almighty God for his blessings and guidance while undertak ing this whole process. He gave me good health, as well as wisdom hence enabling me to accomplish this project proposal in good time. Background of the studyCompetitivenesscan be defined as the performance, as well as the capacity of a given company, sub-sector or a nation to sell or to supply services and goods within a market, in relation to the capacity, as well as the performance of other different firms, sub-sectors or nations in similar markets ((Berger and Udell, 1990, p. 24). According to Paravisini (2008, p. 34), the term competitiveness is also applicable to markets, where it is applied when referring to the degree to which the structure of the marketmay be said to be perfectly competitive. It is worth noting that banks within the United Kingdom are capable of remaining in the market only when they are competitive enough. Peek and Rosengren (1997, p. 23) state that Competitiveness of firms is affected by a number of factors. The global economic and financial crisis signif icantly affected the business environment and this impacted on the performance of a number of business organizations globally, including the banking institutions within the United Kingdom. This paper explores the competitiveness of banks within the United Kingdom before and after the economic crisis. It also looks at some of the various strategies that can be applied by the banks within the United Kingdom in order to enhance their competitiveness. Statement of problemThe competitiveness of business organizations plays a major role in enhancing the profitability of business organizations. There are a number of ways through which the competitiveness of business organizations can be enhanced. In addition, there are a number of factors that affect the competitiveness of business organizations. The global economic crisis, to a great extent affected the performance of business organizations globally. The banking institutions within the United Kingdom were also hit by the crisis. The perfo rmances of the banks were thus affected significantly. It is worth noting that banking institutions play a major role in the economy of any nation. Their competitiveness is therefore of great concern. This study is therefore aimed at establishing the factors that influences competitiveness of banks within the United Kingdom, to establish the effects of global economic crisis on the competitiveness of banks within the United Kingdom and also to establish ways of increasing competitiveness among banks after the global economic crisis. Objectives of the studyThe broad objective of this research will be to establish the competitiveness among the banks in the United Kingdom, prior to and after the global financial crisis. The general objectives of this study will be:To find out the factors affecting competitiveness of banks within the United Kingdom.To establish the effects of global economic crisis on the competitiveness of banks within the United Kingdom To establish ways of increasin g competitiveness among banks after the global economic crisis.Research QuestionsWhich are the factors affecting competitiveness of banks within the United Kingdom?What are the effects of global economic crisis on the competitiveness of banks within the United Kingdom?What are some of the ways of increasing competitiveness among banks after the global economic crisis?Research aimThe major aim of this research will be to establish the factors affecting the competitiveness of banks within the United Kingdom prior to and after the global economic and financial crisis. It will also look at some of the causes of the global economic crisis and how it impacted on the competitiveness of banks within United Kingdom.Justification for the studyThere are a number of benefits that are generated by banking institutions to the economy of the United Kingdom. It is worth pointing out that banks, as well as other financial institutions play very critical roles through performing services that are hig hly vital to the functioning of the economy of the United Kingdom. For instance, banks safeguards, transfers, lends, and exchanges money in numerous forms. In addition, banks evaluate the creditworthiness of customers. These are very critical in shaping the economy of the United Kingdom. All of these roles have ripple effect within the economy as they help in keeping money moving. The health of the economy of the United Kingdom and the health of banks cannot be separated. The activities that are performed by banks significantly influence all the sectors of the economy of the United Kingdom. In addition, as seen through the Global Financial Crisis, UKs financial system is a foundation of the economic resilience of the nation. Additionally, the continued profitability and strength of UKs financial system depend on the robust economic growth of the country.The competitiveness of the banking institutions within the United Kingdom is therefore a matter of concern. The global economic an d financial crisis to a great extent impacted on the competitiveness of the banks within the United Kingdom. This paper, therefore seeks to establish some of the ways through which the competitiveness of the banks were affected. The study is important to a number of authorities within the United Kingdom. The information offered by the study will be highly useful in making the banking institutions within the United Kingdom to be highly competitive. In addition, it will enhance the performance of the banks and hence their competitiveness in the globally challenging business environments. In this regard, it will also enhance the economic growth f the economy of the United Kingdom. In addition, the study will also be of significance to a number of scholars because they will be able to get much information concerning the banking industry of the United Kingdom, as well as the factors that effects competitiveness of the banking institutions. This can form a basis for further studies on th e banking industry within the United Kingdom.Abstract The main purpose of this research will be to explore the competitiveness among the banks in the United Kingdom, prior to and after the global financial crisis. The specific objectives of the study will be to find out the factors affecting competitiveness of banks within the United Kingdom, to establish the effects of global economic crisis on the competitiveness of banks within the United Kingdom and to determine the ways through which banks in United Kingdom can regain their competitiveness after the global economic crisis. The theoretical literature will explore competitiveness of banks among banks in the United Kingdom before and after the global economic crisis. The research will apply descriptive research design. The target population will be banks within the United Kingdom. Introduction The impacts of the gl obal financial crisis were very severe on the banking institutions. Numerous banking institutions went bankrupt as a good number also were in distress because of their sensitivities, which are stored in balance sheets. A good number of them were also in distress because of the financial risks which were enlarged as a result of the the crisis. On the converse, certain banks slightly experienced the effects. A highly competitive banking sector is viewed to be a highly significant element of economy within market economies. The banking sector in the United Kingdom is categorized as a branch of economy, which has undergone the vital, quantity, quality, as well as dynamic changes. The processes of privatization and recapitalization, mergers, acquisitions, and international integration contributed considerably to the establishment of a modernized banking sector, as well as to the upsurge of a globally competitive environment. It is worth noting that possible instability problems of the ba nking sector are capable of generating negative effects on the development of entire economy evidenced by the financial crisis. An Overview of the European Banking System During the past decade, the banking sector of the United Kingdom witnessed substantial changes due to technological improvements such as innovative, as well as sophisticated instruments, which might have resulted into highly leveraged conditions of the market, plentiful global liquidity that appeared as a boom in the prices of commodities, integration and deregulation. In order to remain competitive, a number of banks within the United Kingdom have looked for ways of enhancing their efficiency, as well as profitability through trying to ge...

Thursday, July 2, 2020

Dry Piston Vacuum Pump - Free Essay Example

Commercializing the Kunst 1600 Dry Piston Vacuum Pump © James A. Narus James C. Anderson * June 2003 * James A. Narus is Professor of Business Marketing, Babcock Graduate School of Management, Wake Forest University. James C. Anderson is the William L. Ford Distinguished Professor of Marketing and Wholesale Distribution, and Professor of Behavioral Science in Management, Kellogg Graduate School of Management, Northwestern University. He is also the Irwin Gross Distinguished ISBM Research Fellow at the Institute for the Study of Business Markets (ISBM), located at Penn State University, and Visiting Research Professor, School of Technology Management, University of Twente, the Netherlands. Please note that we prepared this case as the basis for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of an administrative situation. We disguised all of the company names and some of the information on marketplace conditions. Send correspondence to: James A. Narus Babcock Graduate School of Management Wake Forest University Suite 150, One Morrocroft Centre 6805 Morrison Boulevard Charlotte, NC 28226-3551 USA +1. 704. 365. 6717 (telephone) jim. [emailprotected] wfu. edu (e-mail)  © 2003, James C. Anderson and James A. Narus. All rights reserved. Commercializing the Kunst 1600 Dry Piston Vacuum Pump Evan Stone, a senior product manager at Kunst Vacuum Pumps, was excited as he lifted the prototype of a dry piston vacuum pump out of its shipping carton. Management of Kunst’s new parent company, Atler GmbH, had decided to test its ability to penetrate new market segments within the United States (U. S. ). Whereas Atler marketed the 1600 under its own name as a platform product to the scientific laboratory and health care segments, Kunst would sell it as a derivative product in previously untapped application segments. The division’s vice president, Will Metz, had named Evan to head up a team charged with finding new segments for and then commercializing the 1600. Evan looked forward to the challenge. Success would bring recognition from Atler’s senior management. As he placed the steel gray device on his desk, Evan recited to Will all the product information he could recall. The Kunst 1600 Dry Piston Vacuum Pump is a fractional horsepower, injection-molded aluminum pump, with a pumping speed of 1. 6 cubic feet per minute (CFM). The pump weighs 16. 5 pounds. The Kunst 1600 is a reconfigured compressor outfitted with a screen over its input nozzle to catch contaminants. Because it is a compressor, the Kunst 1600 can run longer and cooler than conventional vacuum pumps. This enables the Kunst 1600 to function more efficiently at lower pressure levels than competing products. And, the fact that it is injection-molded means that it has fewer working parts than more traditional models. In contrast to conventional pumps, the Kunst 1600 is oil-free. Kunst will sell the 1600 to its network of wholesalers for $400, with a suggested resale price of $500. † â€Å"Will, this product along with the Kunst reputation for precision, reliability, and durability will make us the ‘Mercedes? ’of vacuum pumps in the U. S. †, Evan confidently predicted. Yet before Evan could begin to market the Kunst 1600, he had to make some critical decisions. First, Evan had to identify and target high potential market segment(s). He planned to do so by determining in which segment(s) the Kunst 1600 stood to deliver the greatest value. Evan speculated that the residential air-conditioning (AC) repair segment would offer the best opportunity. Second, Evan had to develop a value proposition for the Kunst 1600 for each segment targeted. At this point, he wasn’t sure whether to stress the fact that the pump did not require oil changes or that it had a projected lifetime of 6 years. BACKGROUND Based in Minneapolis, Kunst Vacuum Pumps is the recently acquired U. S. Di vision of Atler GmbH. During the previous fiscal year, Kunst sales soared to a 75-year record of $120 million. The firm manufactures top-end (i. e. 6 or more CFM) vacuum pumps for use in highly demanding laboratory, health care, and industrial applications. For example, in the lab, engineers rely on Kunst pumps in freeze-drying, vacuum oven, and distillation processes. In high tech industries, operations personnel employ Kunst pumps in the production of cathode ray tubes and computer chips. From a technical standpoint, Kunst pumps provide a â€Å"deeper draw† (i. e. , they can evacuate chambers down to almost a perfect vacuum) and are more efficient at lower pressure levels than competing models. Scientists, engineers, and health care professionals highly regard the Kunst brand name. Not surprisingly, Kunst holds a 60% market share in laboratory, health care, and industrial applications. Kunst Vacuum Pumps’ parent firm, Atler GmbH, is headquartered in Frankfurt, Ger many. Last year, Atler revenues exceeded â‚ ¬ 5 billion. Founded in 1875, Atler produces diversified lines of high-quality and high-precision measurement instruments, testing equipment, compressors, and monitoring devices for hospitals and scientific laboratories. The firm has a reputation in Europe for its scientific discovery prowess, its reliable and accurate products, and its competent technical service. Atler acquired Kunst the previous year in order to penetrate new segments in the U. S. market. Importantly, Atler management believed that Kunst product lines and market segments were complementary to their own (e. g. , compressors and pumps rely on similar technologies) and that Kunst shared Atler’s commitment to superior craftsmanship. As a test case, they requested that Kunst take a 1. 6 CFM compressor, reconfigure it as a vacuum pump, and market it under the Kunst brand name to previously untapped market segments. If this approach was successful, Atler would beg in to transfer a broad range of products to Kunst for marketing. On the other hand, failure might cause Atler management to doubt the wisdom of the Kunst acquisition. Evan and Will saw this as a golden opportunity for Kunst to grow sales and profits by penetrating new market segments, such as AC and refrigerator repairs. As contrasted with existing Kunst segments, technicians used vacuum pumps in these applications to â€Å"dehydrate† a refrigerant system during repairs. Rather than â€Å"sucking out† moisture from coils, valves, and motors, a vacuum pump actually lowered the pressure of the system so that water particles would â€Å"boil off† and then be exhausted. The process had three major benefits. First, it eliminated water droplets that could freeze into ice crystals. The accumulation of ice retards the flow of refrigerants, ultimately slowing and stopping the cooling process. Second, moisture over time combines with refrigerants to form hydrochlori c and hydrofluoric acids. These acids quickly corrode copper coils, valves, and motors. Vacuuming vaporizes these acids. In a traditional vacuum pump, system oil traps the acids. When a technician changes the oil, he or she removes these acids. In an oil-free pump like the Kunst 1600, the acid vapors are directly exhausted into the atmosphere. Third, vacuuming indicates whether or not there is a leak in the system. If a technician cannot draw down the pressure of a system, then there is a high probability that there is a crack, often small in size, in a coil or valve. Cracked coils are perhaps the most common cause of AC and refrigeration system failure. In deciding what size of vacuum pump is needed for a given repair job, residential AC and refrigerator repair contractors adhere to an industry heuristic known as the Rule of Seven that links vacuum pump and refrigeration system capacities. The rule specifies that pump â€Å"CFM times seven† yields the maximum refrigera tion system capacity (in tons of air) on which a given vacuum pump should be used. In this way, the rule of seven provides rough demarcations for market segments. For example, experts recommend a 1-1. 5 CFM pump for home and light commercial refrigerator repairs (e. g. , small restaurants, bakeries, and ice cream shops). For residential AC repairs, technicians suggest a 3-4 CFM pump. In his preliminary investigations, though, Evan was unable to find any documented scientific support for the rule. Market research indicates that the annual U. S. sales potential for vacuum pumps in each of these market segments to be as follows: home refrigerator repairs (60,000 units), light commercial refrigerator repairs (40,000 units), and residential AC repairs (125,000 units). About 15 vacuum pump manufacturers actively pursue business in these segments. Most firms are small in size (i. e. , less than $50 million in annual sales) and limit their efforts to one or two market segments. In recent years, several German and Japanese manufacturers have entered the U. S. arketplace. The leading producers of 1-6 CFM vacuum pumps include AirMaster, Pump Wizard, Toledo Pump and Valve, and Vacuum Technologies. Pictures of the Kunst 1600 and AirMaster vacuum pumps appear in Exhibit 1. Manufacturers use heating, ventilation and AC (HVAC) wholesalers to reach residential AC firms, and AC and refrigeration (AR) wholesalers to sell to refrigerator repair firms. MARKET RESEARCH STUDY In order to prepare for the introduction of the Kunst 1600 and acquaint himself with new applications segments, Evan decided to initiate a market research study. He began by summarizing his initial beliefs about the marketplace. Evan was certain that the research would validate them. †¢I feel confident that the residential AC repair market offers the greatest opportunity for the Kunst 1600. Annual sales have topped 125,000 units and are growing at 15% per year as the population expands, particularly to the â€Å"Sun Belt. † Furthermore, I predict that AC contractors stand to gain the greatest value from the Kunst 1600. †¢Although most residential AC contractors use anywhere from 3 to 6 CFM vacuum pumps for repairs, I believe that we can make a convincing argument for the Kunst 1600. Most AC system nozzles and vacuum pump hoses are one-quarter inch in diameter. At that diameter, â€Å"resistance† retards the vacuuming process to the point where a 1. 6 CFM pump takes about the same length of time to evacuate a system as does a 6 CFM pump. †¢The most important benefit that the Kunst 1600 provides in all potential market segments is that technicians will not have to change the oil! All vacuum pump manuals recommend that technicians change the oil after each repair job. Each oil change typically takes a quart. At $8 per quart for specialty oil, that can be quite costly on an annual basis. Furthermore, it takes a technician around 30 minutes to change th e oil on a 3 CFM pump. Given that the typical AC repair technician is paid a rate of $30 per hour, the labor costs associated with changing oil must be staggering. †¢Changing oil is a messy nuisance for every technician. Each time a repair technician has to clean up this oily mess, he or she uses $. 50 worth of a solvent-based scouring soap and $. 15 of a specialized cloth-fiber based towel. †¢To protect the environment, most U. S. ities require proper disposal and recycling of all oil-based liquids. The average charge for recycling used oil is around $5 per gallon. †¢The Kunst 1600 is made from injection-molded aluminum. It won’t rust like vacuum pumps made of steel. Furthermore, the Kunst 1600 has far fewer internal parts than competitive models. I predict that the Kunst 1600 will take more physical abuse (e. g. , being tossed into trucks and getting rained on) and be far more durable than traditional vacuum pumps. Our research engineers tell me that it shoul d last at least 6 years in the field. Because it is constructed from aluminum, the Kunst 1600 will weigh 5 to 10 pounds less than competing products. Technicians will appreciate the weight savings. †¢Potential customers will be willing to pay a price premium to obtain a vacuum pump with the Kunst brand name on it. In order to gain â€Å"hands on† experience in these markets, Evan decided to test his beliefs with an extensive research study. The study would feature a series of 2 focus groups with AC and refrigerator repair firm owners or managers and field in-depth interviews with several repair technicians in each of three cities. A private marketing research firm would run the focus groups in Philadelphia, Atlanta, and Los Angeles. Evan selected these cities to reflect differing regional repair environments across the U. S. In each of the focus groups, participants would get the opportunity to examine the Kunst 1600 prototype and product literature. Evan planned to s pend a day with each repair technician making repair calls. On each job site, Evan would encourage the repair technician to run a â€Å"side-by-side† test of the Kunst 1600 and their own pump. If other segments emerged, Evan would repeat the process for each. RESEARCH FINDINGS When the research had been completed, Evan reviewed the major findings with division vice president, Will Metz. â€Å"Will, the most important thing that I discovered is that AC and refrigerator repair is an art that technicians practice rather than a science that engineers meticulously execute. Many repair technicians have never completed rigorous training programs and few states certify technicians. Personal opinions, preferences, and ‘rules of thumb’ dictate how repair work is completed. Let’s review the research findings. † Residential AC Repair Segment The size of the AC repair firms participating in the research study ranged from single owner-operators who worked o ut of the backs of their pick-up or panel trucks to operations that employed 25 technicians and maintain 15 trucks in the field. On average, participating firms had three trucks. Contractors assigned one vacuum pump per truck and kept one or two extra pumps back at the office in case of pump failure. All residential repair contractors owned vacuum pumps between 3 and 6 CFM in capacity. The 3 CFM models were the most popular. They reported that 3 CFM vacuum pumps sell for around $250 while 6 CFM pumps cost about $320. Participants estimated that a pump typically lasts 5 years. Participants report that AC repair work is highly seasonal, lasting for about 20 weeks between late April and early September. In the Southern U. S. the season is longer and in the Northern states shorter. The typical repair technician completes 10 jobs a day, 5 days a week, for an average of 1000 jobs per season. In the peak of the season, they may work seven days a week. Job revenue and completion time var ies widely; however, the average revenue per job is $350 with a net profit before taxes of $70. The typical job takes about an hour to complete. Contractors pay repair technicians an average of $30 per hour. Because technicians had to carry the pumps to unusual locations at job sites, they felt that the lighter the pump the better. They stated that the typical 6 CFM pump weighed around 30 pounds and the typical 3 CFM pump 20 pounds. They thought it was great that the aluminum body of the Kunst 1600 made it lighter than competitive models, however, they wondered if the aluminum would make it more vulnerable to breakage. Others thought that the acids exhausted from the Kunst 1600 would accumulate causing the aluminum housing to corrode rapidly. Focus group and field interviews confirmed that a vacuum pump is used for around 30 minutes in the typical repair job. Technicians maintained pumping time is not â€Å"idle† time in that they use it to complete other repair tasks, load equipment on their trucks, write up customer invoices, and develop a personal relationship with the homeowner. Thus, reducing vacuuming time would not necessarily reduce total job time. Additionally, technicians stated that vacuum pumps rarely failed on the job and if they did, they would radio the office and a manager would drive another pump out to the job site. Lost time due to pump failure was seen as negligible. The focus groups and interviews revealed that owners and technicians were not concerned about vacuuming precision. In the words of one technician, â€Å"As long as the needle on the pressure gauge is close to zero, I feel that I’ve done a reasonable job. † They also asserted that even if a technician failed to draw pressure down to an acceptable level, that the AC system would probably work acceptably for a few more months if not the entire cooling season. When the system broke down again, no one would be able to link the failure to a poor vacuum p umping job. Evan was surprised to learn that most repair firm owners considered vacuum pumps to be â€Å"disposable operating supplies†. Many did not even keep track of pump purchases. As one owner put it, â€Å"At $250 apiece, a vacuum pump is equivalent to the revenue from one repair job. † Another operator put it this way. â€Å"If a pump lasts 5 years and my repair person uses it to complete 5000 jobs, then a 3 CFM vacuum pump costs me around $. 05 per job while a 6 CFM pump costs $. 06. Frankly, I’m more concerned about having to pay $30 per hour for labor. And, I can’t find enough trained repair persons at that wage to keep up with all the jobs I have coming in! † Discussion of oil changes yielded contradictory and confusing results. Owners and technicians alike agreed that vacuum pump instructions called for oil to be changed after every job. However, to a person they stated that changing oil that frequently was unnecessary and that in fact, no one ever did. Instead, they estimated that the average technician changed the oil once a week. Some technicians even claimed to change the oil only once a season. At this point, disagreements between owners and technicians surfaced. Owners contended that it was the responsibility of each technician to check his or her equipment out each day and make sure it was in good operating order. However, they emphatically stated that they would never pay someone $30 per hour to change the oil. Instead, owners felt that the technicians should do the work â€Å"on their own time†. If worse came to worse, owners said they would assign the task to a part-time, maintenance worker ($12. 00 per hour). The contractors agreed that $8 per quart of oil, $. 0 for scouring soap, and $. 15 for towels were reasonable estimates. Repair technicians saw changing the oil as a â€Å"dirty little job†. It took about 30 minutes to complete. Many felt that it was up to the owners to get t he oil changed. As one technician put it, â€Å"I show up for work each day on time and do first rate work. It’s up to the owner to provide equipment and tools in good working order. They should have the oil changed for me. † Technicians said that when they did change the oil they used about one quart of oil for 3-6 CFM pumps. They agreed that they used plenty of soap and paper towels cleaning up the mess after an oil change. Most residential AC repair firms contracted with disposal firms to recycle oil. Importantly, the fact that the Kunst 1600 did not require oil and oil changes caught and sustained both owner and technician interest. That is, until either the focus group moderator or Evan informed them that the Kunst 1600 had a 1. 6 CFM rating. Citing the Rule of Seven for support, every participant stated that the Kunst 1600 was â€Å"too small† to handle residential AC repair jobs. The typical technician commented, â€Å"It would take me 2-3 hours to complete a job with a 1. 6 CFM pump. If I wanted to get done in a half hour, I would have to use 3-4 of them simultaneously. † When informed that the quarter inch nozzle on most AC systems would create resistance and equate the time it took a 1. 6 CFM and a 6 CFM pump to evacuate a system, none of the focus group participants were convinced. In the words of one contractor, â€Å"This runs counter to my 25 years of experience, not to mention the Rule of Seven. No one in the industry will believe you. To Evan’s further disappointment, the side-by-side tests of his resistance theory proved to be inconclusive. Study respondents identified Pump Wizard as the top brand in the industry for over 40 years. They volunteered the fact that Pump Wizard had designed its vacuum pumps exclusively for the residential AC repair marketplace. No one expressed any dissatisfaction with any aspect of Pump Wizard vacuum pumps. Participants said that AirMaster and Vacuum Technologies currentl y offered competitive models of equal quality. All three firms priced their 3 CFM pumps at around $250 and their 6 CFM pumps at $320. When the moderator or Evan showed study participants the prototype of the Kunst 1600, they universally stated, â€Å"Why this doesn’t look like a vacuum pump at all. † In fact, most competing models resembled hand-held vacuum cleaners that most families had around the house. And, when asked what their overall opinion of the Kunst brand was, the vast majority of respondents said that they had never heard of the name. Participants overwhelmingly concluded, â€Å"This pump would be better suited for home and light commercial refrigerator repairs. † Home and Light Commercial Refrigerator Repair Segments Following up on the residential AC participants’ suggestion, Evan repeated the market research procedure for the home and light commercial repair segments. He gathered the following information. An individual owner-operato r runs the typical home or light commercial refrigerator repair firm, working out of the back of a pick-up or panel truck. Firms tend to specialize in either home or light commercial repairs. Larger firms that do contract work for appliance retailer chains may have up to 15 repair technicians working for them. A refrigerator repair technician uses a 1 to 1. 5 CFM vacuum pump. Participants in the study thought that a 1 to 1. 5 CFM pump might have a five-year lifetime. On home refrigerator jobs, technicians typically use a 1 CFM vacuum pump for around 15 minutes. Participants did not see any benefit to reducing this meager amount of vacuuming time. Home repairs generate an average of $90 in revenue, with a net profit before taxes of $10. The typical technician completes 7 jobs a day. Work is spread out evenly across the year. Repair firms pay technicians about $15 per hour. Light commercial work might entail fixing a refrigerated dessert carousel at a restaurant or a refrigerate d display case at a bakery or ice cream shop. Each job brings in an average of $200 in revenue, with a net profit before taxes of $30. Technicians do about 5 jobs per day and receive $24 per hour in wages. Light commercial work occurs throughout the year; however, emergency repairs skyrocket during the summer and there are often more jobs available than a given repair firm can handle. A light commercial refrigerator-repair technician typically uses a 1. CFM vacuum pump for 30 minutes. Repair firm owners consider this to be â€Å"idle time† as there are fewer tasks to perform in refrigerator repairs and technicians must complete them sequentially. In this application, Evan’s side-by-side tests revealed an unexpected finding. The Kunst 1600’s ability to work more efficiently at lower pressure levels enabled technicians to reduce vacuuming time by 10 minutes on the typical job. During the 12 hectic weeks of summer, technicians would be able to convert the time save d into revenue by completing at least two more jobs per week. Home and light commercial refrigerator-repair technicians change the oil on their vacuum pumps typically once a month. They use one pint or $4 of oil per change. As most of these firms are owner-operated out of the back of a pick-up or panel truck, they find changing oil to be an annoyance. On average it takes a technician 30 minutes to change the oil on a 1 to 1. 5 CFM pump. Technicians change the oil during working hours between jobs. Participants found the $. 50 cost of scouring soap and $. 15 of towels per clean-up to be reasonable estimates. Due to their small size, refrigerator repair firms rarely contract with oil disposal firms and are more likely to pay the $5 per gallon disposal charge at municipal recycling centers. Allegedly, refrigerator repair technicians are more likely to â€Å"toss used oil in deserted dumpsters† than counterparts in other segments. Evan noted that the fines for dumping a gal lon of oil average around $150 for the individual plus $2000 for his or her company. According to an environmental action committee study, only about 10% of these violators are caught and successfully prosecuted. Respondents named AirMaster as the number one brand of 1 to 1. 5 CFM pumps. An AirMaster 1 CFM pump costs $150 and weighs 10 pounds and a 1. 5 CFM pump $200 and 15 pounds. None of the refrigerator owners or technicians was familiar with the Kunst brand. Resolving an Inconsistency in the Findings Evan was perplexed by one major inconsistency in market research findings. If respondent predictions of vacuum pump lifetimes were correct, annual sales of vacuum pumps would never be so high. To resolve this discrepancy, Evan interviewed 9 managers from HVAC and AR wholesalers that market vacuum pumps. According to wholesaler managers, most repair firms do not keep track of their vacuum pump purchases and overestimate pump lifetime. On the other hand, wholesaler managers clai med that they meticulously tracked customer firm purchases via their electronic point-of-sale systems. They stated that with â€Å"reasonable care† and frequent oil changes a 3-6 CFM vacuum pump used in residential AC repair work might last an average of 2. 5 years. A 1 CFM pump used in home refrigerator repair lasts about 3 years. And, a 1. CFM vacuum pump employed in light commercial refrigerator repairs lasts about 2 years. However, as one wholesaler manager sagely observed, â€Å"Many repair technicians do not take good care of their pumps and change the oil as often as they should. Acid build up corrodes internal parts and physical abuse causes the pumps to fail prematurely. But hey, that’s fine with me – I get to sell more pumps! † CONCLUSION â€Å"Those are the major findings, Will,† Evan said. â€Å"The market research certainly hasn’t supported my initial beliefs, yet there still may be an opportunity for the Kunst 1600. Given w hat we know now, what segment(s) do you think we should target? † As for devising a value proposition, Evan thought that one contractor’s comment summed up the challenge, â€Å"If you can’t show me how your vacuum pump is going to increase the number of jobs I can do per week or cut my operating costs, I don’t want to hear about it! † As he stared at the minimalist painting of a windmill on his office wall, Evan wondered how he could best convey the superior value of the Kunst 1600 to targeted prospective customers. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1. What are the major, quantifiable value and price elements associated with the Kunst 1600? 2. What additional value placeholders, elements not presently quantified, merit consideration in your value model? 3. Construct a customer value model for the Kunst 1600 in the residential AC, home refrigerator, and light commercial refrigerator repair market segments. 4. Using your value model, select a target market segm ent(s) for commercialization efforts. Justify your choice. 5. Write a value proposition for the Kunst 1600 for the target market(s).

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

The Cyanamid test - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1562 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Law Essay Did you like this example? Introduction Interim (a.k.a. interlocutory) prohibitory injunction is a court order that forbids the person it is addressed to do something. It is an equitable remedy and is awarded at the discretion of the court. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Cyanamid test" essay for you Create order The famous guidelines for granting the interim injunctions by the court were introduced by Lord Diplock in the case of American Cyanamid Co v Ethicon Ltd[1] (hereinafter the Cyanamid test). The above case concerned the claimant, a US company marketing synthetic surgical sutures, which was finally granted an injunction by the House of Lords to restrain the defendant, an English company, which invented a similar product, from infringing its patent rights. This work aims to analyse the argument that the Cyanamid test is too rigid prompting the courts to create a number of exceptions. The Cyanamid test Lord Diplock introduced the following elements of the Cyanamid test to be satisfied in order for the court to grant interim prohibitory injunction[2]: Serious questions to be tried Firstly, the claimant is required to show to the court that its claim has substance, i.e. that it is à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“an issue for which there is some supporting material and the outcome of which is uncertainà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ [3] rather than a frivolous claim[4]. Adequacy of damages If the first element is satisfied, the court will then look into whether the damages awarded to the claimant or to the defendant, if the latter wins, are adequate to do justice (Garden Cottage Foods Ltd Milk Marketing Board[5]). Where damage is hard to quantify or in the case of irreparable harm, the injunction is likely to be granted (Allen v Jambo Holdings Ltd[6]). Balance of convenience If there are any doubts regarding the adequacy of damages, the balance of convenience will be looked at by the court à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“balancingà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  all other issues specific to the case. Subsequent treatment of the Cyanamid test The decision in the Cyanamid case caused some turbulence in the subsequent court decision making. However, before proceeding with analysis of the same, it is essential to note that the Cyanamid test comes into a conflict with earlier Beecham Group Ltd Bristol Laboratories Pty Ltd[7], where the court emphasised that for the injunction to be granted, firstly, the claimant must establish à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“prima facie caseà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ , i.e. that the claimant is actually entitled to the right he is claiming and, secondly, the proof of the probability of success was required, which is overall a much tougher test to satisfy than the Cyanamid test. Subsequently, the Cyanamid test was closely followed by the courts in a number of cases, such as Alfred Dunhill Ltd v Sunoptics[8], where Browne LJ stated that Lord Diplockà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s decision was binding and that the Cyanamid test should be followed. The court in Thomas Marshall (Exports) Ltd v Guinle[9] followed the Cyanamid test as well, but nonetheless noted that there are some cases where the needs of the parties and justice dictate a more comprehensive hearing with Beecham style test applied. When analyzing the Lord Diplockà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s rationale behind the Cyanamid test it appears that he tried to ensure the speedy review of the injunction applications and to prevent the occurrence of unnecessary à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“mini-trialsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  burdening the court system (Series 5 Software Ltd v Clarke[10]). Some commentators argue that he went too far in setting out very precise rules on assessing the strength of partiesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ cases, the potential harm to the parties despite alternative legal resorts and availability of undertakings in relation to payments of damages, which was limiting the exercise of the courtà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s discretion to do justice[11]. In order to ensure the equitable treatment of all cases, courts tended either to side-step the Cyanamid test or create exceptions to it. It was distinguished in Bryanston Finance Ltd v de Vries (No 2)[12] by the Court of Appeal, which decided that the Cyanamid test was inapplicable to injunction application to prevent presentation of winding up petition. Keay in his article[13] provides a number of further examples of exceptions, such as cases where fraud is involved (Alfred Dunhill Ltd v Sunoptics[14]) and those relating to the right to publish an article or the transmission of a television programme where time is of the essence (Cambridge Nutrition Ltd v BBC[15]), mandatory injunctions applications (De Falco v Crawley BC[16]) and employment and industrial disputes (Attorney-General v Punch Ltd[17]). Interestingly, one of the exceptions was introduced by Lord Diplo ck himself in NWL Ltd v Woods[18] where he accepted that the Cyanamid test should not be adhered to if the interim hearing was going to be decisive and final. This is a very important exception as Lord Denning M.R. in Fellowes Son v Fisher[19] mentioned that à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“after a decision on an interim injunction application the matter goes no further in 99 out of 100 casesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  [20]. Besides the exceptions, it appears that the courts in some cases felt that the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“prima facieà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  test worked better and in Fellowes Son v Fisher[21] Browne LJ was particularly concerned that it was not possible to consider the balance of convenience fairly and equitably without taking into account the merits of the case[22]. On another note, Meagher argued that it is doubtful that the damages can actually be adequate in cases where the remedy of injunction is sought[23]. Indeed, the injunction is generally applied for in specific, sometimes extreme, cases to prevent the applicantà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s potential hardship, undermining of its reputation, loss of its customersà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ trust or loss of its business relationships and it is hard to imagine how the damages can be adequate if any of the above happens. Again, this should all be left to the courtà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s discretion in order to allow it to do what is just and equitable. Recent considerations Since the introduction of the Civil Procedure Rules and the ensuing change of approach towards the case management, it is claimed that the Cyanamid test is not as critical as it once was, mainly because the Rules place, among other things, greater emphasis on identifying and resolving issues likely to go to hearing as early as possible[24]. In addition, following the implementation of the Human Rights Act 1998, the court in Cream Holdings Ltd v Chumki Bannerjee The Liverpool Daily Post Echo Ltd[25] held that the Cyanamid test is no longer applicable to injunction a pplication relating to the freedom of expression[26]. Conclusion The Cyanamid test is a good example of the battle happening in the courts on the most equitable methods to be used to decide the interim injunctionà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s application, which are generally either on the merits of the case (the prima facie case) or on the balance of convenience (the serious question). It was argued that some bits of the Cyanamid test were considered too rigid and limiting the courtà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s discretion in doing justice. As a result, whilst the Cyanamid test was acknowledged and in some cases followed by the courts, it has been frequently either avoided or subject to various exceptions, altogether with ensuing criticism and academic debate. Following the introduction of the Civil Procedure Rules, the Cyanamid test seem to have lost its edge and the Human Rights Act 1998 disapplied its application to the cases involving freedom of expression. However, at the end of the day, the Cyanamid test should not be treated à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“as rules but only as guidelinesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ [27]. As such, they seek to bring more flexibility rather than limit the discretion given to the court by equity (R v Secretary of State for Transport, ex parte Factortame Ltd[28]). Bibliography Meagher R et al, Equity à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Doctrines Remedies, 4th ed., LexisNexis Butterworths, Charswood, 2002 McGhee J, Snellà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Equity, 31st ed., Sweet Maxwell, London, 2005 Spry I, The Principles of Equitable Remedies: Specific Performance, Injunctions, Rectification and Equitable Damages, 7th ed., Sweet Maxwell, London, 2007 Cumming G, The Use of English Civil Procedure in order to Enforce European Competition Law, Civil Justice Quarterly, 25, 2006, 99-112 Keay A, Whither American Cyanamid?: Interim Injunctions in the 21st Century, Civil Justice Quarterly, 23, 2004, 133-151 1 Footnotes [1] [1975] AC 396 [2] American Cyanamid Co v Ethicon Ltd [1975] AC 396, at 408, per Lord Diplock [3] Cayne v Global Natural Resources Plc [1984] 1 All ER 225 [4] Meagher R et al, Equity à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Doctrines Remedies, 4th ed., LexisNexis Butterworths, Charswood, 2002, p.779 [5] [1984] AC 130 [6] [1980] 1 WLR 1252 [7] (1968) 118 CLR 618 [8] [1979] F.S.R. 337, at 365 [9] [1979] F.S.R. 208 [10] [1996] 1 All E.R. 853 [11] Spry I, The Principles of Equitable Remedies: Specific Performance, Injunctions, Rectification and Equitable Damages, 7th ed., Sweet Maxwell, London, 2007, p.466 [12] [1976] Ch 63 [13] Keay A, Whither American Cyanamid?: Interim Injunctions in the 21st Century, Civil Justice Quarterly, 23, 2004, 133-151, p.139 [14] [1979] F.S.R. 337 at 363 [15] [1990] 3 All E.R. 523 at 534 [16] [1980] 1 Q.B. 460, CA [17] [2003] 1 A.C. 1046 [18] [1979] 1 W.L.R. 1294 at 1306 [19] [1976] Q.B. 122 [20] ibid, at 133 [21] [1976] QB 122 [22] ibid, p.139 [23] Meagher R et al, Equity à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Doctrines Remedies, 4th ed., LexisNexis Butterworths, Charswood, 2002, p.780 [24] Keay A, Whither American Cyanamid?: Interim Injunctions in the 21st Century, Civil Justice Quarterly, 23, 2004, 133-151, p.151 [25] [2003] 2 All E.R. 318 [26] This is because s.12 of the Human Rights Act 1998, which incorporated the European Convention on Human Rights into English law, provides that no relief, including injunction, restraining the freedom of expression à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“is to be granted so as to restrain the publication before trial unless the court is satisfied that the applicant is likely to establish that publication should be allowedà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ . In these circumstances, the Cyanamid test would be unsuitable (Cumming G, The Use of English Civil Procedure in order to Enforce European Competition Law, Civil Justice Quarterly, 25, 2006, 99-112, p.107 ). [27] Cayne v Global Natural Resourc es plc [1984] 1 All ER 225 at 237 [28] [1991] 1 AC 396

World War I Flying Ace Rene Fonck

Colonel Rene Fonck was the top-scoring Allied fighter ace of World War I. Scoring his first victory in August 1916, he went on to down 75 German aircraft during the course of the conflict. After World War I, Fonck later returned to the military and served until 1939. Dates:  March 27, 1894 –  June 18, 1953   Early Life Born on March 27, 1894, Renà © Fonck was raised in the village of Saulcy-sur-Meurthe in the mountainous Vosges region of France. Educated locally, he had an interest in aviation as a youngster. With the outbreak of World War I in 1914, Fonck received conscription papers on August 22. Despite his earlier fascination with aircraft, he elected not to take an assignment in the air service and, instead, joined the combat engineers. Operating along the Western Front, Fonck constructed fortifications and repaired infrastructure. Though a skilled engineer, he reconsidered in early 1915 and volunteered for flight training. Learning to Fly Ordered to Saint-Cyr, Fonck commenced basic flight instruction before moving to more advanced training at Le Crotoy. Progressing through the program, he earned his wings in May 1915 and was assigned to Escadrille C 47 at Corcieux. Serving as an observation pilot, Fonck initially flew the ungainly Caudron G III. In this role, he performed well and was mentioned in dispatches twice. Flying in July 1916, Fonck downed his first German aircraft. Despite this triumph, he did not receive credit as the kill went unconfirmed. The following month, on August 6, Fonck achieved his first credited kill when he used a series of maneuvers to force a German Rumpler C.III to land behind French lines. Becoming a Fighter Pilot For Foncks actions on August 6, he received the Medaille Militaire the following year. Continuing observation duties, Fonck scored another kill on March 17, 1917. A highly veteran pilot, Fonck was asked to join the elite Escadrille les Cigognes (The Storks) on April 15. Accepting, he commenced fighter training and learned to fly the SPAD S.VII. Flying with les Cigognes Escadrille S.103, Fonck soon proved to be a lethal pilot and achieved ace status in May. As the summer progressed, his score continued to increase despite taking leave in July. Having learned from his earlier experiences, Fonck was always concerned about proving his kill claims. On September 14, he went to the extreme of retrieving the barograph of an observation aircraft he downed to prove his version of events. A ruthless hunter in the air, Fonck preferred to avoid dogfighting and stalked his prey for prolonged periods before striking quickly. A gifted marksman, he often downed German aircraft with extremely short bursts of machine gun fire. Understanding the value of enemy observation aircraft and their role as artillery spotters, Fonck focused his attention on hunting and eliminating them from the skies. Allied Ace of Aces During this period, Fonck, like Frances leading ace, Captain Georges Guynemer, began flying the limited production SPAD S.XII. Largely similar to the SPAD S.VII, this aircraft featured a hand-loaded 37mm Puteaux cannon firing through the propeller boss. Though an unwieldy weapon, Fonck claimed 11 kills with the cannon. He continued with this aircraft until transitioning to the more powerful SPAD S.XIII. Following Guynemers death on September 11, 1917, the Germans claimed that the French ace had been shot down by Lieutenant Kurt Wisseman. On the 30th, Fonck downed a German aircraft which was found to have been flown by a Kurt Wisseman. Learning this, he boasted that he had become the tool of retribution. Subsequent research has shown the aircraft downed by Fonck was most likely flown by a different Wisseman. Despite poor weather in October, Fonck claimed 10 kills (4 confirmed) in only 13 hours of flying time. Taking leave in December to be married, his total stood at 19 and he received the Là ©gion dhonneur. Resuming flying on January 19, Fonck scored two confirmed kills. Adding another 15 to his tally through April, he then embarked on a remarkable May. Goaded by a bet with squadron mates Frank Baylies and Edwin C. Parsons, Fonck downed six German aircraft in a three-hour span on May 9. The next several weeks saw the Frenchmen rapidly build his total and, by July 18, he had tied Guynemers record of 53. Passing his fallen comrade the next day, Fonck reached 60 by the end of August. Continuing to have success in September, he repeated his feat of downing six in one day, including two Fokker D.VII fighters, on the 26th. The final weeks of the conflict saw Fonck overtake leading Allied ace Major William Bishop. Scoring his final victory on November 1, his total finished at 75 confirmed kills (he submitted claims for 142) making him the Allied Ace of Aces. Despite his stunning success in the air, Fonck was never embraced by the public in the same way as Guynemer. Possessing a withdrawn personality, he seldom socialized with other pilots and instead preferred to focus on improving his aircraft and planning tactics. When Fonck did socialize, he proved to be an arrogant egotist. His friend Lieutenant Marcel Haegelen stated that though a slashing rapier in the sky, on the ground Fonck was a tiresome braggart, and even a bore. Postwar Leaving the service after the war, Fonck took time to write his memoirs. Published in 1920, they were prefaced by Marshal Ferdinand Foch. He also was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1919. He remained in this position until 1924 as a representative for Vosges. Continuing to fly, he performed as a racing and demonstration pilot. During the 1920s, Fonck worked with Igor Sikorsky in an attempt to win the Orteig Prize for the first nonstop flight between New York and Paris. On September 21, 1926, he attempted the flight in a modified Sikorsky S-35 but crashed on takeoff after one of the landing gears collapsed. The prize was won the following year by Charles Lindbergh. As the interwar years passed, Foncks popularity fell as his abrasive personality soured his relationship with the media. Returning to the military in 1936, Fonck received the rank of lieutenant colonel and later served as Inspector of Pursuit Aviation. Retiring in 1939, he was later drawn into the Vichy government by Marshal Philippe Petain during World War II. This was largely due to Petains desire to utilize Foncks aviation connections to Luftwaffe leaders Hermann Gà ¶ring and Ernst Udet. The aces reputation was damaged in August 1940, when a spurious report was issued stating that he had recruited 200 French pilots for the Luftwaffe. Eventually escaping Vichy service, Fonck returned to Paris where he was arrested by the Gestapo and held at the Drancy internment camp. With the end of World War II, an inquiry cleared Fonck of any charges pertaining to collaboration with the Nazis and he was later awarded the Certificate of Resistance. Remaining in Paris, Fonck died suddenly on June 18, 1953. His remains were buried in his native village of Saulcy-sur-Meurthe. Selected Sources First World War: Rene FonckAce Pilots: Rene FonckThe Aerodrome: Rene Fonck

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay about The Time Machine A Social Critique of...

H G Wells was cynical of the Victorian class system and thoroughly disapproved of the way people were segregated, according to their wealth. Wells disagreed with England’s capitalist views, as he himself was a socialist. His novel The Time Machine is primarily a social critique of Victorian England projected into the distant future. He has taken segregation to its extremes and shows how far human evolution will go if capitalism continues unhindered. On travelling to the future he finds that this new world is not what he expected, as he feels vulnerable and ‘naked in a strange world.’ (Page 26) This panic then quickly transforms into frenzy as he then meets the Eloi who were all that he despised, creatures who were frail, had lost†¦show more content†¦This is like the Nineteenth Century as the upper class Victorians would walk about carefree as children have the freedom to do. This could be trying to convey that the upper class who have never had to work have not yet had a chance to fully grow up and work for a living. Whilst describing the Eloi Wells mentions their ‘small ears’ (Page 29) and ‘soft little tentacles’ (Page 28), this is because the theory of evolution was an amazing discovery in the nineteenth century and Wells has shown how the Eloi have adapted using the concept of natural selection. They have become frail and fragile creatures that are afraid of the dark because they have missed out on having to work to survive, which are the complete opposite of their fellow inhabitants the Morlocks. This relates back to Wells’ society, the rich upper class who had never experienced hard labour were not as tough and more vulnerable as opposed to those who worked in order to survive. The Time Traveller in the story is ‘disappointed’ (Page 63) with these creatures as this is not evolution it is regression, instead of the human race growing older and adapting they are in fact slowly returning to a child like state. This is not what people would have expe cted in the future and he has personified this view to show people that if they keep going the way they do then instead of civilization evolving it will regress further than we haveShow MoreRelatedEssay about The Time Machine1573 Words   |  7 PagesMore a book about Victorian society than that of the future’, is this a fair reflection of The Time Machine? `â€Å"Long ago I had a vague inkling of a machine†¦that shall travel indifferently in any direction of Space and Time, as the driver determines.† Filby contented himself with laughter. ‘’But I have experimental verification,† said the Time Traveller. ` Wells was born into British poverty to a working class family: father a gardener, shopkeeper and cricketer; mother a maid and housekeeperRead MoreCompare And Contrast Different Literature Periods1452 Words   |  6 Pageschanging in the society and language development in every period. This essay will demonstrate the relation between the literature and social events, and how authors affected and contributed to form those periods, also I will try to compare two different literature periods. The Renaissance (rebirth period) The Renaissance is an era started in Italy and it came to England in the sixteenth century that made an end to the dark ages whose knew before it. This period became the bridge who access between theRead MoreAnalysis Of The Time Machine 1722 Words   |  7 PagesThe Time Machine takes place in the 1890s, in the year AD 802,701, and more than 30 million years in the future. In chapter one, the reader is introduced to professional men who gather in a Victorian salon while having dinner and discuss everything about the day. They are able to do this because they are members of the elite class. They are also defined and identified by their professions and even the professions are further defined: two kinds of doctors, a mayor of a province, and the time travelerRead MoreThe Importance Of Being Earnest, By Oscar Wilde1515 Words   |  7 Pagesmanufacture and transport materials. It is a time in which the majority of items started being made by machines in large factories, rather than by hand. These type of changes were not the only ones happening during this time, as the Industrial Revolution also sparked many economic, political, and cultural changes. Through the Revolution, the Victorian Era emerged--a time focused on family values, religious beliefs, and gender roles. During the Victorian Era, writers and poets questioned the unrealisticRead MoreThe Time Machine : A Social Critique1870 Words   |  8 PagesThe Time machine is a social critique of H.G Wells’s Victorian England projected into the distant future. The author was known for his Socialist and Communist leanings and propogated the fact that Capitalism is one of the greatest evils of modern society . His major target has always been the elitist branch of evolution - Social Darwinism. An offshoot of Darwin’s ‘ origin of species ‘ theory , Social Darwinism misapplied the idea of natural selection to justify the stratification between the richRead MoreA Study on Metafictive D evices in the French Lieutenant’s Woman5819 Words   |  24 Pagesnovelist-surrogate, the parody of Victorian romance and the creation of multiple endings. The last part will focus on the author’s profound aim in utilizing these techniques. Based on a careful survey of the original work and relevant materials, the paper holds the perception that through metafictive devices, Fowles has expressed his critical point of view towards Victorian era and woman emancipation. 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It was a period during the 18th and 19th centuries marked by social and technological change in which manufacturing began to rely (INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION, Timeline Index). Power driven machines began to perform what people had done before. Many significant changes in the way goods were produced took place ultimately transforming and modernizing the world. The basic resources forRead MoreVictorian Literature Essay2858 Words   |  12 PagesViktor E. Frankl, the Austrian psychologist, once stated that â€Å"When we are no longer able to change a situation – we are challe nged to change ourselves†. A Victorian society condemned to a period of forced adjustment into a life of despotism, as a result of radical change and revolution, dictatorial upper-class tyranny and a life absent of pleasure and happiness, serves as an example of the great psychologist’s words. 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Short Story - 750 Words

After talking to Lucy, Seth spent the rest of the evening at his favorite pastimes: drinking, throwing up, drinking, watching television, drinking while watching television, throwing up some more, a sudden round of cold chills, and drinking. The new television was one he had scored from a Craigslist ad he came across after having left from his visit with Dr. Stevens. It was one of those now out-of-date projection TVs people seemed to be always trying to get rid of in exchange for the more modern flat screens LCD that are much lighter and have a better quality picture and sound. That was just fine by Seth, though. The new boob tube may have been a nuisance to its previous owner, but it was still better than the last one he had and at a†¦show more content†¦You’re just sitting there on your duff as usual, getting stoned, and playing those stupid games.† â€Å"Alright, calm down, honey,† Seth defended, barely taking his eyes from his game to address how upse t his girlfriend was becoming. â€Å"I’ll pick a new tie up tomorrow and I’ll spend the whole day hitting the streets looking for work. I’m sure something will come along.† â€Å"Well, Seth, you better!† Lucy cried. â€Å"I don’t know if you’ve ever put down that damn game and the dope long enough to realize this, but do you see how big my belly has been getting lately? Do you know why that is? It’s because there’s a baby growing inside of me. In three months we’re going to be parents, Seth†¦ you’re going to be a father. â€Å"Is that what that is?† Seth proclaimed. â€Å"Oh, thank God. I didn’t want to say anything before because I didn’t want to hurt your feelings, but I had honestly thought you’ve been really letting yourself go lately.† â€Å"Shut up, Seth,† snipped Lucy, â€Å"this isn’t funny. I’m near the end of my second trimester and I should by now be taking it easy at this point for the sake of our baby, but I can’t. I have exams next week that I need to study for, but I can’t find time to do that either, because the rents due on the first and all of our other bills need to be paid, and the refrigerator is empty again. I’ve had to deal with nothing butShow MoreRelatedshort story1018 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿Short Stories:  Ã‚  Characteristics †¢Short  - Can usually be read in one sitting. †¢Concise:  Ã‚  Information offered in the story is relevant to the tale being told.  Ã‚  This is unlike a novel, where the story can diverge from the main plot †¢Usually tries to leave behind a  single impression  or effect.  Ã‚  Usually, though not always built around one character, place, idea, or act. †¢Because they are concise, writers depend on the reader bringing  personal experiences  and  prior knowledge  to the story. Four MajorRead MoreThe Short Stories Ideas For Writing A Short Story Essay1097 Words   |  5 Pageswriting a short story. Many a time, writers run out of these short story ideas upon exhausting their sources of short story ideas. If you are one of these writers, who have run out of short story ideas, and the deadline you have for coming up with a short story is running out, the short story writing prompts below will surely help you. Additionally, if you are being tormented by the blank Microsoft Word document staring at you because you are not able to come up with the best short story idea, youRead MoreShort Story1804 Words   |  8 PagesShort story: Definition and History. A  short story  like any other term does not have only one definition, it has many definitions, but all of them are similar in a general idea. According to The World Book Encyclopedia (1994, Vol. 12, L-354), â€Å"the short story is a short work of fiction that usually centers around a single incident. Because of its shorter length, the characters and situations are fewer and less complicated than those of a novel.† In the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s DictionaryRead MoreShort Stories648 Words   |  3 Pageswhat the title to the short story is. 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This story would be considered a gothic short story because of its use of setting, theme, symbolism, and literary devices used to portray the horror of a missing six-year-old girl. Plot is the literal chronological development of the story, the sequence of events

College football playoff free essay sample

College Football Playoff System 43% of Americans say that football is their favorite sport to watch, more than three times than any other sport said an article on ProCon. Org. In 2008 a record 37. 5 million people attended a college football game to cheer on their team in hope of a championship season. (ProCon) As the players push themselves as hard they can go and the fans cheer as loud as they can; they often come to the end of a great season to be denied by the BCS system. In 1998 the Bowl Championship Series (BCS) was designed to take the top two BCS-ranked college football teams to play each other in national championship while eight other top teams play in four bowl games. (ProCon) As other bowls have grown around the BCS games we are currently at 34 bowl games at the end of every college football season. Each year 68 go into the bowl games giving us 34 winners every year. We will write a custom essay sample on College football playoff or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page What does this accomplish? Who is the best college football team in the nation if there are 34 teams that end the season as champs? College football needs to have a post-season playoff system, as most other sports do, to prevent the hard working undefeated teams from getting left out and to determine one true champion. The Super Bowl: the grand-daddy of all football games. Im sure most people around the U. S. know what the Super Bowl is, even if they dont watch football. In order for the two teams to make it to the Super Bowl, they went through the playoffs. With thirty-two teams in the league each team must fght for the playoffs of twelve teams. The playoff tournament is a sudden death tournament. You lose, you go home. FCS (football championship subdivision), Division II, and Division Ill all end their regular seasons with playoffs systems as well. Beginning in 1967 with the NFL nd picking up in 1978 in FCS the playoffs have worked so well with these football leagues. When comparing almost all other sports including NBA and college basketball, MLB and college baseball, and major league and college lacrosse each of these athletic clubs end their seasons with some sort of post-season playoff system. College basketball has huge success in their playoff system called March Madness. March Madness is a 64-team playoff at the end of each season in college basketball to declare the National Champion. The fans love when March Madness rolls around every year. Not saying we need a playoff as large in size as March Madness but college football needs to get on their game and see that if playoffs work so well in all other sports it could work for them as well. As referred to earlier the BCS was formed to pit the top two college football teams against each other each season for the national championship title. Are these teams always the best two teams though? Fans argue that the teams selected to play for the National Championship are not always the two best teams. The University of Utah (in 2004 and 2008) and Boise State University (in 2006 and 2009) were excluded from he national championship game despite being undefeated while teams with one or more losses played for the national title. Although the argument can be made that Utah and Boise State dont play as strong ot opponents during their season, they still should not be punished for playing their hearts out and fghting for an undefeated season. Since 1998, 11 undefeated teams have been excluded from the BCS National Championship game while teams with one or more losses were included. Ten of those eleven teams where non-BCS schools, which are teams that dont play in the ajor six conferences (ACC, Big 12, SEC, Big East, Big Ten, and, Pac 12), teams such as Boise State, TCU, and Utah. Furthermore a non-BCS team has never been toa national championship. How can people make the argument that these non-BCS teams do not play high quality teams if they have never had a chance to play them? The one other team apart of that eleven was the undefeated 2004 Auburn Tigers team. Auburn began their season very low in the ranking not expecting a big season. As they fought and pushed with all they had to complete their season with an undefeated record of 13-0, they were denied a chance at a national title because of he undefeated seasons that USC and Oklahoma also had. (ESPN, Auburn) The BCS has ended the chances for all eleven of these teams to prove that they could have been the best team in the nation in these seasons. Having the playoff system will give the ability for these teams like Boise State and Auburn to fght for their chance at a national title. What do college football bowl games accomplish? With 34 bowl games in the end of each season 68 teams out of the 120 teams are allowed to compete for the top 34 spots in the nation. Ending the season with 34 champs every year. How we are atisfied with 34 teams as the champions at the end of each season we need to get this playoff system reworked so we can have the opportunity to call the final team at end a true champion. After over 140 years without a playoff system, the BCS Presidential Oversight Committee approved a four-team college football playoff on June 26, 2012. The new Football Bowl Series (formerly Division I-A) playoff is scheduled to begin in the 2014-15 season and continue through the 2025 season. (Dinch) According to the BCS, a selection committee will decide which teams will participate in the playoff. Decision factors include win-l oss record, strength of schedule, head-to-head results, and whether a team is a conference champion. Dinch) The semifinals will rotate among current bowl sites, and the national championship game will be hosted in the city that places the highest bid. An ESPN poll with 112,252 participants found that 77% said the four-team playoff was the right move for college football, but 61% said eight teams would be ideal. (ESPN, ProCon) The four-team playoff is a good start in the right direction, but hopefully it will expand to eight teams or maybe even sixteen in the future, similar to college asketballs sweet 16. Many augments have and will continue to be made about the college football playoff system. The conferences will lose out on the connection by having their champion in a BCS bowl every season. Messing up many contracts with aligned with teams and conferences and conferences with bowls. A lot of people say they enjoy having all the bowl games to watch. The college football post-season bowl games are very popular and profitable. Most all bowls sell out and even some exceed their seating. In 2008 the Rose Bowl the capacity was 91,000 and the attendance was 3,293. Although the bowl games are very popular and the risk of extending the season longer witn a playott system, the playott is whats best tor college tootball. College football needs to have a post-season playoff system, as most other sports do, to prevent the hard working undefeated teams from getting left out and to determine one true champion. The start they have made with the four-team playoff to start in 2014 is moving in the right direction. Hopefully the future will have an increase in the number of teams to eight or sixteen. Pushing away from ending each eason with 34 teams as champs is something to look forward to.